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A. Optimising winter-housing systems for dairy cattle. Newberry, R. C. (1995). Davey, G. (2006). Burghardt, G. M. (1992). (2000). Single subject (small N) research designs and zoo research: Zoo Biology Vol 15(2) 1996, 173-181. Comparison of several types of enrichment for captive felids: Zoo Biology Vol 26(5) Sep-Oct 2007, 371-381. Problem of reptile play: Environmental enrichment and play behavior in a captive Nile soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx triunguis: Zoo Biology Vol 15(3) 1996, 223-238. Birth and Simultaneous Rearing of Two Litters in a Pack of Captive African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus): Zoo Biology Vol 25(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 461-477. Jones, R. B., Satterlee, D. G., & Cadd, G. G. (1998). Krishnamurthy, R. (1994). Kyngdon, D. J., Minot, E. O., & Stafford, K. J. Sometimes mobile petting zoos travel with fairs or carnivals from city to city. Captivity can be used as a generalizing term to describe the keeping of either domesticated animals (livestock and pets) or wild animals. (1993). : Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 38(3-4) Dec 1993, 337-344. Today's zoos claim other reasons for keeping animals under human care: conservation, education and sci… Meers, L., & Odberg, F. O. (1996). Reproductive parameters in captive hand-reared black-bellied sandgrouse: Zoo Biology Vol 27(4) Jul-Aug 2008, 269-281. Hunt, G. R., & Gray, R. D. (2007). Moods, minds and molecules: The neurochemistry of social behavior: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 44(2-4) Sep 1995, 99-118. Noonan, G. J., Rand, J. S., Priest, J., Ainscow, J., & et al. Hennessy, M. B., Davis, H. N., Williams, M. T., Mellott, C., & Douglas, C. W. (1997). Elston, J. J., Carney, J., Quinones, G., Sky, C., Plasse, C., & Bettinger, T. (2007). Physical, chemical, and behavioral factors in large low-density naturalistic animal facilities. Yeon, S. C., Golden, G., Sung, W., Erb, H. N., Reynolds, A. J., & Houpt, K. A. Where the wild things are: The benefit of an integrated zoo-based program for the social development of young children. Ethics and Welfare in Southeast Asian Zoos: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 7(3) 2004, 189-195. (2005). Psychological tics can also be identified, ranging from swaying to head bobbing to pacing. Shier, D. M., & Owings, D. H. (2007). (2000). Ekkel, E. D., Spoolder, H. A. M., Hulsegge, I., & Hopster, H. (2003). Cassinello, J., & Pieters, I. Matheson, S. M., Asher, L., & Bateson, M. (2008). Sanotra, G. S., Lawson, L. G., Vestergaard, K. S., & Thomsen, M. G. (2001). Social and spatial relationships in captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum): Zoo Biology Vol 26(6) Nov-Dec 2007, 487-502. Managing naturalistic animal environments in captivity. Davey, G. (2006). Ari, C., & Correia, J. P. (2008). Zanella, A. J., Brunner, P., Unshelm, J., Mendl, M. T., & Broom, D. M. (1998). Dustbathing behaviour in jungle and domestic fowl reviewed from a Tinbergian and animal welfare perspective: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 93(3-4) Sep 2005, 259-282. A comparison of tethering and pen confinement of dogs: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 4(4) Oct 2001, 257-270. Experimental evaluation of environmental enrichment of sea turtles: Zoo Biology Vol 26(5) Sep-Oct 2007, 407-416. (2007). repetitive and apparently purposeless motor behaviors. Wild animals are kept for a variety of reasons and in a range of environments, including zoos, circuses, other performing environments and as pets in homes (known as 'exotic pets'). Effects of age at pairing on reproduction in captive California condors (Gymnogyps californianus): Zoo Biology Vol 13(1) 1994, 3-11. [2] Although its reported incidence is low, self-injurious behavior is observed across a range of primate species, especially when they experience social isolation in infancy. (2002). Hosey, G. R. (2000). (2001). Tofield, S., Coll, R. K., Vyle, B., & Bolstad, R. (2003). Nutrition and behavioral management of bottle-raised moose calves: Zoo Biology Vol 16(6) 1997, 495-503. Garner, R. L. (1892). Bowles, A. E. (1995). Law, G., & Tatner, P. (1998). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Glickman, S. E., & Caldwell, G. S. (1994). Whitten, P. L., Stavisky, R., Aureli, F., & Russell, E. (1998). Dierenfeld, E. S., Kilbourn, A., Karesh, W., Bosi, E., Andau, M., & Alsisto, S. (2006). Sneddon, I. From enclosure to wood: Initial responses of Leontopithecus chrysomelas groups at Jersey Zoo to a change in environment: Dodo: Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Trusts Vol 37 2001, 21-33. : Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 55(1-2) Dec 1997, 113-128. Regulations and guidelines applicable to animals maintained in indoor seminaturalistic facilities. Training Tammar Wallabies (Macropus eugenii) to Respond to Predators: A Review Linking Experimental Psychology to Conservation: International Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 16(2-3) 2003, 111-129. Also, in past times, primarily the wealthy, aristocrats and kings collected wild animals for various reasons. The effect of hay on the behaviour of caged rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): Animal Welfare Vol 8(2) 1999, 149-157. Animal innovation defined and operationalized: Behavioral and Brain Sciences Vol 30(4) Aug 2007, 393-407. Threat bite involves biting one's own body—typically the hand, wrist, or forearm—while staring at the observer, conspecific, or mirror in a threatening manner. On top of self inflicted harm, some animals exhibit harm towards others and internal psychological harm. Targeting aggression in blue-eyed black lemurs ( Eulemur macaco flavifrons ): Primates Vol 40(4) Oct 1999, 613-617. Environmental influences upon the relationship of engagement in occupation to adaptation among captive chimpanzees. Public opinion and animals in captivity: Informal learning in small social groups at the Milwaukee County Zoo: Dissertation Abstracts International. Whittington, C. J., & Chamove, A. S. (1995). Burn, C. C., & Mason, G. J. Effects of captivity and memory-based experiences on the hippocampus in mountain chickadees: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 123(2) Apr 2009, 284-291. (2006). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Mendl, M. (1997). Throughout history not only domestic animals as pets and livestock were kept in captivity and under human care, but also wild animals. Stress in wild-caught Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra): Effects of a long-acting neuroleptic and time in captivity: Animal Welfare Vol 13(2) May 2004, 143-149. Capture and mass change: Perceived predation risk or interrupted foraging? Animals that live under human care are in captivity. Dailey, J. W., & McGlone, J. J. Xie, Y. : Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 9(3) 2006, 179-199. Weary, D. M. (2003). A note on the effect of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 106(1-3) Aug 2007, 155-160. On the concept of animal innovation and the challenge of studying innovation in the wild: Behavioral and Brain Sciences Vol 30(4) Aug 2007, 425-437. (2007). Byrne, G., & Suomi, S. J. (1986). Can Captive-bred Varecia variegata variegata Adapt to a Natural Diet on Release to the Wild? Cachel, S. (2007). Indirect competition between a resident unisexual and an invading bisexual gecko: Behaviour Vol 139(9) Sep 2002, 1161-1173.

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